In these entertaining episodes our Chemical Reporter answers questions on Chemistry in our everyday life.

Why do you wince when you bite into a lemon?

If someone is brave enough to bite into a lemon, then you can instantly tell from their expression that it wasn't exactly a pleasant experience. There's a reason why we can perceive the taste of sour. If something is too acidic, then it sends a signal to the brain.

What are fungicides?

Just like animals and human beings, plants can get sick. In many cases, the cause is a fungus. Not a mushroom like you see poking up out of the ground in the woods, but a network of branching, filamentary cells that botanists call hyphae.

Why does a mirror grow dark?

If you glance at yourself in a looking glass and notice that you are beginning to look a little dull around the edges - or have maybe even developed black spots - there is a scientific reason for the phenomenon. A mirror can be robbed of its reflective power by the chemical reaction known as oxidation.

How do engine coolants work?

Frozen water can be lots of fun. For example, if you have a pair of skates, you can perform elegant moves on the surface of solid-phase H2O. Or you can roll together the fluffy ice crystals that fall from the sky into a snowman. But drivers like it less. They much prefer water in its liquid phase. An internal combustion motor contains coolant - the liquid that carries excess warmth away from the engine when it's burning fuel. And if the coolant freezes when the temperature drops below zero degrees Celsius, then you have a serious problem.

How is artificial rain produced?

There have been plenty of attempts all over the world to influence the weather with chemical tricks. In Thailand, for example, what is called the 'fon luang', or 'king's rain', is aimed at preventing drought, while what are known as 'hail planes' regularly take to the skies in Germany to subdue potential hailstorms.

How does a sparkler work?

In the history of our attempts to master chemistry, explorations of fire are certainly among the most ancient experiments ever performed. And although we have controlled it for thousands of years, the magic of fire remains spellbinding. Take sparklers, for example. There’s little in life quite as satisfying as watching one of these gray rods spark and sputter to life when you light it.

How do you brew non-alcoholic beer?

Beer has a long history. Experts say humanity has known the alcoholic beverage for more than 5,000 years. When you think about it that adds up to a lot of hangovers, which is why it's a good thing that modern breweries have also figured out how to make beer that doesn't contain alcohol. There are basically two ways to brew low-alcohol beer. Either you lower the percentage of alcohol in the beverage during the brewing process, or afterwards.

What does it mean when people talk about "hard water"?

Hard water - sounds like white and flaky showerheads, encrusted water cookers, or stopped-up pipes. Although the clear water that comes jetting out of the faucet might look soft and innocent, it contains substances that can turn pretty hard. Just let a little water from your sink evaporate in a glass. It leaves a thin, chalky white film behind that chemists call calcium carbonate and is commonly known as lime.

What's the difference between sugar and artificial sweetener?

Sugar and sweetener - both taste sweet, which is just another way of saying that both interact with the 'sweetness' taste receptors on your tongue. But that's about all they have in common. Otherwise, sugar and sweetener don’t chemically resemble each other in the least. In fact, they belong to completely different classes of substances.

How does the non-stick surface in a pan work?

When the first non-stick cookware arrived on the market back in the mid-1950s, it was an instant hit. The images of fried eggs or pancakes sliding straight out of the pan onto the plate proved irresistible to consumers. As with so many other products, however, the discovery that made it all possible involved a series of lucky coincidences.

What is the chemistry behind a permanent wave hairstyle?

The key to understanding lies in the molecular structure of hair. A single hair is made up of a bundle of fibers. The individual fibers are in turn made up of even smaller threadlike components known as fibrils. And in their turn, fibrils are made up of chains of protein molecules - mostly the tough structural protein keratin - that are twisted together and attached to one another with chemical bridges made of sulfur or hydrogen atoms. If you want to change it, then you first have to dissolve the bonds.

Why does fluoride make your teeth hard?

Your chewing apparatus has to be pretty stable to be able to cope with all the sustenance we shove into it every day. The outermost layer of a tooth, the enamel, is actually the hardest substance that the human body produces. It consists of a mineral called hydroxylapatite.

Why do potatoes get softer when you cook them, while eggs get harder?

It’s strange, isn’t it? In both cases you’re dropping something you want to eat into a pot of boiling water, but what happens to the spud is the exact opposite of what happens to the egg. The secret involves the chemical make-up of the potato. It consists largely of starch. It’s a different story entirely with eggs. They’re composed mostly of proteins.

What’s the significance of that percentage number on the label of a bottle containing an alcoholic beverage?

Alcohols are a group of diverse organic compounds, among them ethanol, methanol, propanol and butanol. All alcoholic beverages sold legally must be clearly marked with the percentage of alcohol the drink contains. That number is a measure of how strong the beverage is.

What is carbon dioxide?

Carbon dioxide is a naturally-occurring chemical compound containing carbon and oxygen which makes up a minute but significant portion of the earth’s atmosphere. It is created when you burn substances that contain carbon - for example, fossil fuels or coal - but is also an end product of respiration in animals. When you breathe, carbon in your body reacts with oxygen from the air, combining to form carbon dioxide.

What is the radiocarbon dating method?

All organisms – plants, animals, human beings – need carbon to survive. In the air, the element can be found in the commonly occurring compound carbon dioxide (CO2 ). Plants absorb CO2 and turn it into carbohydrates. We in turn absorb these carbohydrates when we eat the plants. And when we breathe out, we then release carbon dioxide back into the air. All of these steps together make up the ‘carbon cycle’. The moment an organism dies, this cycle is broken. And even thousands of years later, that moment can be dated using the radiocarbon dating method.

Why does silver inhibit bacterial growth?

Lots of products out there capitalize on the antibacterial effects of silver. Everything from cleaning cloths and insoles to washing powder and bandages – they all seem to employ the element in some way. Unfortunately, silver can’t really perform miracles. But it can be used quite effectively to control bacteria.

What are sponges made of?

In the old days, sponges only came from the sea. For millennia, brave divers risked life and limb to bring them back to the surface. In the age of plastic, however, you don’t have to expose yourself to danger to acquire one. As a matter of fact, most modern artificial sponges improve on the design from nature in several ways.

Why does cream turn to whipped cream when you whip it?

If you don’t keep shaking a container of unhomogenized milk, then the thicker, fatty portions of it separate and float to the top. This is liquid cream, which can be ladled off and beaten to produce a stiff foam - whipped cream. Cream is mostly made up of lipids, water and milk proteins.

Why does your urine smell so different after you`ve eaten asparagus?

It doesn’t take long after you’ve polished off a plateful of the delicious vegetable before you are forcefully reminded of it in the restroom. Some people are surprised by the strange odor rising from the bowl after urinating. The unmistakable olfactory experience is caused by organic sulfur-containing compounds.

Why do cherries burst when it rains?

The whole point of the skin of a cherry is to keep that from bursting. The smooth, slippery envelope protects the fruit from falling prey to funguses or microbes, and water usually just slides right off of one. But the rainstorms feared by fruit-growers are a different matter.

Why does caffeine have a stimulating effect?

The very first thing many people do when they stumble out of bed in the morning is pour themselves a cup of coffee. The substance in the hot brew that helps wake you up is well-known all over the world: caffeine. Caffeine doesn't only come from coffee beans. Most of the caffeine is synthetically manufactured by the chemical industry.

What makes blue-jeans blue?

As far back as the Middle Ages in Europe, blue has always been a color worn by the nobility. Some kings wore blue cloaks to their crowning ceremonies. The dye was made from a substance that had to be brought all the way from far-off India - indigo, which was made from an extract of the indigo plant. In 1897 BASF became the first company to hit the market with a synthetically-produced version of indigo.

Why is it sometimes so hard to get ketchup out of the bottle?

Ketchup can be a stubborn condiment. Just when you're ready to bite into a burger, it often refuses to flow. Only when you give the bottle a serious shake or two does it start to move. And there's a reason why. Ketchup isn't your normal, everyday liquid.

Why does milk form a skin on top when you cook it?

All over the world cows, goats, sheep and other mammals are industriously milked every day to provide us with a whole range of dairy products. Children love it, and lots of grown-ups also enjoy a glass of creamy milk every now and again. But you can’t let the milk get too hot. Otherwise it destroys the vitamins, and something forms on top that isn’t tasty in the least - a skin.

What´s the difference in carbon between a pencil lead and a diamond?

The lead of a pencil is made out of the mineral graphite, which is one of the forms - or 'allotropes' - of the element carbon. Diamond is another. It’s also made up of pure elemental carbon. But even though both materials are made of only carbon atoms, they have strikingly different physical properties. Graphite is soft, while diamond is the hardest naturally-occurring mineral. How can one and the same element take on such different forms?

What gives a rubber band its elasticity?

If you stretch a rubber band and then release it, it snaps back into its original shape. As you probably know, rubber has elastic properties, which is why its also called an elastomer. However, the natural state of caoutchouc, or raw rubber, is exactly the opposite of elastic. It’s plastic, which means that it can be shaped and formed like putty.

What happens to meat when you roast it?

The discovery of fire opened up whole new worlds of taste for stone-age humans. They could start turning those chunks of raw mammoth meat into beautifully browned roast leg of mammoth and were benefiting from an interesting chemical reaction. In 1912, did French chemist Louis Camille Maillard begin to shed light on the chemical interactions that take place when you roast or grill meat.

What is spider silk made of?

Over millions of years of evolution, spiders have developed the perfect material for constructing a net: spider silk. Material researchers can get pretty worked up just talking about its properties. It has five times the tensile strength that a steel thread of the same diameter has, and is at the same time more ductile - stretchable - than most plastic fibers.

What is dry-cleaning?

When a shirt gets dirty, you usually just have to chuck it in the washing machine, add a little laundry detergent, and let the combination of water and soap do the rest. But some pieces of clothing are too delicate to put in there. As the name implies, dry-cleaning doesn't use any water - or any soap, for that matter.

Why does ice melt when you sprinkle salt on it?

Every winter it's the same old problem: Ice and snow wreak havoc with traffic. To battle the slick roads, the winter services people are out there day and night spreading salt on the streets.

How does a plasma monitor work?

In simple terms, behind the glass on the front of a plasma screen you’ll find a whole lot of tiny cells that are filled with one of the 'noble' gases, generally neon or xenon. Each of these cells represents a single point - a pixel. If a voltage is applied to the gas, then it converts into what is known as a plasma - and the pixel begins to glow.

What is shoe polish made of?

If you want your leather shoes to continue to look clean and snazzy, then there's no way around it: you have to polish them occasionally. The polish that you apply contains both fats - lipids - and wax. The lipids make the leather soft and smooth, while the wax protects it from moisture and dirt and gives it a beautiful sheen.

How does a glow stick work?

Although the way glow sticks work at first seems almost magical, it's actually pretty simple. They provide a purely chemical source of light. A glow stick is a sealed, see-through plastic pipe containing a fluorescent dye and two different liquids.

What are liquid crystals?

After the advent of liquid crystal displays, or LCDs, everybody nowadays has at least heard the term 'liquid crystal'. The high-tech screens are everywhere: in computer monitors, cell phones, digital cameras, and calculators.

What is cling film made of?

Cling film - also called plastic wrap - has to be pretty versatile. It should stretch a lot without tearing, it should keep out the germs, and it has to seal in moisture and aroma to keep those cold cuts from drying out and that chunk of French cheese from smelling up the refrigerator. On top of that, the wrap has to stick to the edge of the plate or the bowl. For many years, one plastic in particular has been performing all of those chores perfectly - polyethylene, or PE for short.

What are emulsifiers?

If you put the oil and water together in a single glass, then they act like a couple of suspicious neighbors. Each quickly finds its own level - the oil on top and the water below - and has as little interaction with the other as possible. There's a kind of fence between them that each is unable to overcome on its own: this barrier is called 'surface tension'. But with the help of emulsifiers the oil and water are able to come to terms.

What is mother-of-pearl?

While taking a walk along the beach, you might have noticed shells that have inner surfaces that shimmer in colorful patterns when they reflect the sunlight. The iridescent substance responsible for it is called nacre, or more commonly: mother-of-pearl. The name says it all, because the shell comes from one of the species of mollusk that can also produce pearls.

How does conditioner make your hair soft?

Hair isn't exactly lying still all the time. It's constantly in motion - we brush it, run our fingers through it, and style it in all kinds of tortuous ways. When we tax it and strain it, the shingles on the outside of a strand of hair can stand up - or even break off. But with the help of conditioner, the hair’s protective outer layer is able to repair itself.

What are bioplastics?

Bioplastics might look artificial, but they sure act like they're organic. When you toss them on a compost heap, for example, they simply disappear. There's no magic involved, though. Compostable bioplastics disintegrate in nature without leaving a trace.

How does a drain cleaner work?

A lot of stuff disappears down the drain that never comes out the other end. If you can’t get to the blockage in the pipe to clean it mechanically, then your only choice to get the water flowing again is a drain cleaner.

Why does hair turn grey?

In campfire stories, you often hear that someones' hair turns grey or white overnight because of a stressful or frightening experience. That's pretty obviously an exaggeration - but what ARE the factors involved when hair loses its young and vibrant tones and assumes that silvery sheen?

Why is sugar sticky?

Sugar's ability to adhere to a surface pretty impressive. Back in the 1950s, women even used sugar water to hold extravagant hairdos in place - and it made them pretty indestructible. But how does the sugar do it?

Why can´t you mix oil and water?

Everyone knows that oil and water just don’t mix. But how come?

How does fabric softener make your laundry soft?

A little fabric softener is a big comfort in a tough world. But what chemical trick is behind the feel of clothes freshly-rinsed with fabric softener?

What does fertilizer have to do with plant growth?

Fat tomatoes, enormous pumpkins, sunflowers that stretch up into the sky - for some home gardeners, what starts out as a hobby turns into a quest for the colossal. There are even competitions. And to have a chance, an ambitious gardener has to do a lot more than just talk to his little green charges. If you want quick growth and sturdy plants, there's just no getting around it – you have to fertilize them.

What´s a bullet-proof vest made of?

To protect themselves from the swords and arrows of their enemies, soldiers throughout the ages have used armor made of different types of material: leather, bronze or iron. Nowadays there are more comfortable ways to keep yourself protected.

Why do you get garlic breath?

Few spices are as treasured and avoided! A clove of garlic is both tasty and healthy, but after you eat it, don't be surprised if even your friends start to give you a wide berth. Quite a few people find the smell of garlic disgusting, and will probably keep their distance.

What does the SAE classification on motor oil cans mean?

A motor oil's primary function in an engine is to lubricate its moving parts. A thin film of oil keeps the parts from rubbing directly against one another, preventing wear and ensuring smooth motion. To fulfill that function, the oil can’t be too thick or too thin either. But calibrating a motor oil is a lot harder than it sounds.

How is leather produced?

A leather jacket has been through an astonishing transformation. You can’t even tell that it was once on the back of a cow. How do you make an elegant piece of leather from rough cattlehide?

What happens to film when it is developed?

Nowadays, most of us have a digital camera. In this case you wouldn't even ask such a question. You just print out the pictures. Developing pictures through classic photography is a bit more complicated.

What is chewing gum made of?

You should be able to chew gum for some time without it dissolving. A determining factor is its chewable base. Nowadays, modern chewing gum consists mainly of a polymer mixture.

What is dry ice?

Dry ice cannot be found in nature. It is just not cold enough here on earth. In outer space, on the planet Mars for example, carbon dioxide hardens and turns into ice. But who is going to fly to Mars just to get dry ice?

How does a fluorescent lamp work?

We usually think of a light bulb when thinking of light. Yet, a light bulb has very little in common with a fluorescent tube. In a light bulb, the light is generated by a filament. On the other hand, a gas is stimulated, causing the fluorescent lamp to illuminate.

How do air fresheners work?

Air fresheners capture the annoying odor molecules, no longer allowing them to smell. But how does it actually function?

Why does coffee smell so good?

Our nose is a master at chemistry. Day after day it sniffs through various aroma molecules travelling through the air. Our nose can distinguish between approximately 10.000 different smells. Coffee aroma is one of them. For many of us an exceptionally pleasant experience.

How do tanning creams make our skin turn brown?

In western cultures, tanned skin is seen as beautiful and desirable. Even without sunlight, you can turn brown overnight with the help of tanning cream. But how does it actually function?

How does a pocket warmer work?

Surely you know of those practical plastic pouches which heat-up as soon as you bend the metal platelet inside. A good thing to have during winter: warm fingers are just a pants pocket away. But how does it work without fire or a battery? Another secret that can be revealed through chemistry.

What makes a match ignite?

Matches are practical. A box of red-tip, wooden matches fits into every pants pocket. Always ready to light a candle or fireplace. A swift move, a light crackling sound and the match is lit. It happens every day, so why be amazed? Well, if you take a closer look, a box of matches contains a great deal of chemistry.

What does laundry detergent consist of?

Red wine, egg yolk, gravy, lipstick or chocolate - every spot has its own chemistry. Not an easy task for a laundry detergent, getting a variety of spots out of your clothing just like that. It takes teamwork. Therefore, up to thirty different ingredients help to keep your laundry clean and bright.

What makes steel stainless?

Steel consists mainly of iron. And, iron has an unpleasant characteristic: it rusts. For example, if you don't dry it after washing up, reddish-brown rust spots will appear after a while.

How does toothpaste clean our teeth?

Every child knows the rule to brush teeth after eating. But, what actually happens in your mouth when you brush?

How does fireworks function?

In some countries the new year will be welcomed with nice festive fireworks. But without chemistry, there would be no colorful stars shining in the night sky, no sparkling rain, no silver trails in the darkness.

How is a mirror assembled?

When you look at yourself in the mirror, you could be led to believe that the glass is doing the reflecting. This is not so. The actual mirror is well-protected behind a plate of glass. This send in question comes from Amir Hossein Seyyedi.

Why is a highlighter pen fluorescent?

When we say highlighter pen or text marker, we are actually talking about a normal felt-tip pen with a special attribute. With a single stroke, normal words and letters illuminate at a glance. This send in question comes from Leonidas.

Why do bananas turn brown through cold?

A banana does not like it in the refrigerator - understandably so. From the time it starts out as a small plant, it is used to tropical sun. Its peel turns spotty and brown. Its flavour disappears. How can this happen? This send in question comes from Mahaboob Basha in Bangalore, India.

Why does baking powder put out a fire?

There is a lot to learn about chemistry hidden in a packet of baking powder. It not only makes a cake's batter wonderfully light and fluffy, but could also extinguish a fire. This send in question comes from Said from Egypt.

Why does a kettle calcify?

A calcified kettle can become a real energy-eater. You first use energy to heat the chalk before the water can even get hot. That is why it is important to dissolve or remove the chalk or lime regularly. But why does a kettle actually calcify? This send in question comes from Kai in Germany.

How does a deodorant work?

Our skin contains approximately 2.5 million sweat glands spread over our entire body. Figuratively speaking our body's air-conditioning - yet, they also create a "sweaty" smell. This send in question comes from Isabel in Nairobi, Kenya.

What makes a chili pepper have a hot fiery flavor?

Chilli peppers are in a league of their own. A chemical substance is responsible for their fiery taste. Even when diluted to one part in a million, a person can still recognize its burning flavour. This send in question comes from Jaoud in Oulmes, Morocco.

Why does silver tarnish?

On special occasions we like to break out the silver ware. Unfortunately, sometimes it does not shine quite as festively as we would like and may even be completely tarnished. This send in question comes from Bruno in Pernambuco, Brazil.

Why is fall foliage so colourful?

When fall arrives the tree's living conditions begin to change. The days are shorter and the weather gradually cools down. So nature simply takes a small break and shows us a colourful world. This send in question comes from Sharmila Sigdel via e-mail.

What makes a car’s paint scratch-resistant?

Automotive paint must endure a great deal in its travels: scrubbing car wash brushes, flying rocks and stones or lashing tree branches. Even our finger nails leave permanent traces behind when opening and closing the car’s doors. What must be done with the paint so that it resists all the stresses and strains as long as possible? This send in question comes from Timothy from Vancouver, Canada.

How does hair styling gel work?

Whether surfer-look, Latin-lover style or high-power hair. With a little hair gel, fashionable and trendy looks can quickly be achieved. The name of the game is maximum hold. But how does it work? What is "chemically speaking" behind this styling formula? This send in question comes from Anouk from Amsterdam.

Why does chopping onions make us cry?

When we cut into an onion, we release a chain reaction. So the onion defends itself with chemical weaponry. This should scare off the attacker. Ideally it is meant to deter hungry rodents, yet humans belong to its natural enemies. Our Chemical Reporter explains why eyes begin to burn when chopping onions. This send in question comes from Ben Kenya.

How does soap clean our hands?

So you try to get your greasy chicken fingers clean without soap – only water – and it does not seem to help much. The water either bubbles or rolls off the oil and your fingers stay greasy. This is because water has a special characteristic: its surface tension. Our Chemical Reporter explains how soap can help. This send in question comes from Ivan from Cyprus.

What makes a refrigerator cold?

To make it short: The cold does not come into the refrigerator. Instead, the warmth goes out. Technically speaking, a refrigerator cannot produce coldness. That sounds a bit strange at first, yet the operation principle of a refrigerator is based on a simple law of nature. Our Chemical Reporter explains the principle. This send in question comes from Bruno from Brazil.

Why do colors fade?

Not only colors of clothing fade and become pale, but many other things in our daily lives are also affected. Like interior paint, plastic objects, photographs and pictures. Listen to our Chemical Reporter and learn why. With this send in question Jeffry from Indonesia won an iPod Nano during our competition on

What does the gasoline octane rating represent?

You could go ahead and get the impression that it is always best to drive with 100-octane fuel. This is not true. Every gasoline-operated engine is adjusted to a specific type of gasoline. What does the octane number at the gas pump mean? Listen to the answer of our Chemical Reporter. With this send in question Uli from Essen won an iPod Nano during our competition on

What is concrete made of?

The history of concrete begins in ancient Rome. The Romans found a way to produce artificial stone – with which they constructed the Colosseum, for example, and the famous Pantheon Dome. Even after thousands of years, we still marvel at these antique buildings. The composition of concrete has remained essentially the same since then. Our Chemical Reporter explains the details.

How is mineral water carbonated?

Many people like that tingling feeling on their tongue. Carbonated mineral water just seems to have that certain lively something. A bottle of soda water contains approximately six grams of carbon dioxide (or carbonic acid gas). But how does it actually get in there? Listen to the answer of our Chemical Reporter. With this send in question Yvonne from Singapore wins an iPod Nano during our actual competition on

How does an automotive catalytic converter work?

Despite exhaust fumes from millions of cars, the air in our cities is relatively clean; thanks to the catalytic converter - better known as 'cat'. It transforms an astonishing 98 percent of related pollutants into non-toxic substances. But, how does the 'cat' succeed in making such a clean transformation? Listen to our Chemical Reporter. With this send in question Remi wins an iPod Nano during our actual competition on

How are leather shoes made rainproof?

Anyone who has ever been hiking or on a walking-tour, and been surprised by pouring rain, knows how unpleasant it feels to be stuck in wet leather shoes. The shoes drenched in water, heavy as lead and your feet soaking wet. What is thesecret behind rainproof shoes? With this send in question Naeem from Syria won an iPod Nano during our competition on

How is paper made tear-proof?

Coffee filters, paper towels or tea bags are made out of paper fibres. Even when they are wet, they don't tear at once. How special chemicals bring BASF - paper chemicals for paper making

What does actually take place when we color our hair?

Some hair highlights in red for the up coming party or just covering first grey hairs - no problem thanks to dyes for hair. And the secret behind dyeing is going to be disclosed in our new issue of The Chemical Reporter. With this send in question Kate from Washington DC won an iPod Nano during our competition on

How does a battery work?

It is full of energy in a very handy size - a battery fits into every portable electric device. But what is exactly happening between a plus and a minus pole and how does energy begin to flow? Our Chemical Reporter will explain the secret of battery power. With this send in question Thomas from London won an iPod Nano during our competition on

Why can’t we drink seawater?

You can drink saltwater from the sea, but it will not quench your thirst. It not only makes you feel ill but you literally die of thirst. Our Chemical Reporter will explain why.

Why is laughing gas actually called laughing gas?

The chemical compound consisting of nitrogen and oxygen is called nitrous oxide or N2O. But why it also is called "laughing gas" explains our Chemical Reporter. With this send in question Sode Kiran in Bangalore, India won an iPod Nano during our actual competition on

How does sunscreen lotion protect our skin?

What could be nicer than laying on the beach in the sun and being lazy? An extensive sun bath is everything but recuperation for our skin. How can sunscreen protect us? With this send in question Lydia from Munich won an iPod Nano during our competition on

Is formic acid derived from ants?

Formic acid is truly a Jack of all trades. The applications of formic acid and if it is made from ants will answer our Chemical Reporter.

What makes baby diapers so absorbent?

A diaper's core contains so-called 'super-absorbers'. What sounds like science fiction transportation, are highly absorbent granules. Listen to the explanation of our Chemical Reporter.

How does an ink eraser erase ink?

The principle of an ink eraser is a more like an optical illusion. What might sound like magic is truly a ‘sleight of hand’ in chemistry. Listen to the astonishing explanation of our Chemical Reporter.

What makes lipstick kiss-proof?

Next to creams, lipsticks are the most frequently used cosmetic and found in almost every handbag. But what makes lipstick actually kiss-proof explains our Chemical Reporter.

Why does foam lather?

Shaving cream, shampoo, washing dishes or taking a bath. Foam is bubbling around us. But why does foam actually lather answers our Chemical Reporter.

Why does natural gas have an odor?

Normally natural gas is odorless. Why you can smell it nonetheless will explain our Chemical Reporter.

Why do fireflies glow?

In warm summer nights you can see them: Small fluorescent insects known as fireflies or glowworms. But, how is this illumination or "glow" produced? Follow our chemical reporter.

Why is glass transparent?

Approximately 7000 years ago, the Egyptians already knew how to produce glass. Today, it is still one of the most important materials - not only for windows. But why is glass actually transparent? Ask the chemical reporter!

How do solar panels work?

The use of solar energy is constantly increasing. But what is the secret of solar panels - how do they work? Follow our chemical reporter.

Why does glue stick?

One can't imagine modern life without glues. They are used everywhere: for wallpaper paste, for handicrafts, for repairs. But why does glue stick? Follow our Chemical Reporter.

What makes a non-iron shirt wrinkle free?

Non-iron textiles can make life more convenient. Follow our Chemical Reporter, how fabrics can be tamed and how clothes can become wrinkle-free.